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Jaffer Khan Colony | Calicut | Kerala | India

Sexologist Doctor - Sexology Clinic

+91 9349113791

Established in 1960


What is safe sex?

Sex is something that every man and woman wish to have from the time they attain puberty. And it is, in fact, the most enjoyable thing in the world for most people. But if it is not safe sex it can turn life to a most miserable one.

In general, people who begin sexual activity with high-risk individuals - such as prostitutes - are at high risk of infection. Engaging in sexual intercourse without the use of a condom at puts them at greatest risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which can lead to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) which is often fatal and there is currently no complete cure for AIDS.

Another serious sexually transmitted disease (STD) is syphilis, which if left untreated, can lead to paralysis, psychiatric illness, and death. Other sexually transmitted diseases like Gonorrhea and Chlamydia may produce no obvious symptoms in a woman, but they can lead to sterility if not treated. STDs should be diagnosed and treated, and all sexual partners must be treated in order to avoid re-infection. Individuals can reduce their exposure to such sexual risks by practising abstinence, using appropriate methods of contraception to avoid unwanted pregnancies and using safe sex practices. Most important of these are using condoms to avoid exchanging bodily fluids and limiting the number of sexual partners, preferably only with the life partner. Sexual involvement -normal, oral or anal – any with an unknown partner without precautions for safe sex is always at risk and is unsafe.

What is libido?

Libido ( the Latin word for Sexual desire, sex drive, sexual appetite, and sexual passion) is the psychic drive or energy, specially that associated with the sexual instinct. Libido in its common usage means sexual desire; however, more technical definitions refer to libido as the free creative - or psychic energy an individual has to put toward personal development, or individuation. Libido can also be classified as the urge to copulate. For humanity, the natural way in which this occurs is through sex.

Sometimes the sexual desire is reduced. Loss of libido may or may not correlate with infertility. Factors of reduced libido can be both psychological and physical. Reduction in libido can occur from psychological causes such as loss of privacy and/or intimacy, stress, distraction or depression. It may also derive from the presence of environmental stressors such as prolonged exposure to elevated sound levels or bright light. Physical factors that can affect libido are lifestyle factors, medications and, according to a study, the partner.

What is orgasm?

"Orga" literally means an explosion in Greek. An explosion of pleasure, physical and mental liberation, the orgasm is the peak of sexual excitement. It is also shrouded in mystery and misconception. Orgasm, or climax, is an intense and usually pleasurable sensation that occurs at the peak of sexual arousal and is followed by a drop in sexual tension. Orgasm consists of a series of rhythmic contractions in the genital organs and pelvic region. Breathing rate, pulse rate, and blood pressure increase dramatically during orgasm. The sensation is very intense-more intense than the tingling or pleasures that accompany strong sexual arousal. Orgasm is intense sexual excitement which steadily builds during sexual activity and crescendos tension and engorged blood vessels that build up during sexual excitation. Your heart pumps faster and your breathing gets heavier to fuel those tensing muscles. Hormones such as endorphins and oxytocin are pumped around your brain and body, telling you this is fun. Blood is pumped to your genitals to create the tension that will ultimately trigger a pudenda reflex (muscular spasm of the genitals). That reflex will result in your pelvic-floor muscles contracting between five and 15 times at 0.8-second intervals. This is an orgasm as we know it. We tend to make a huge fuss about orgasms in our society. Most articles about enhancing your sex life focus on improving orgasms or having more of them. But the intensity of an orgasm is not an indication of sexual satisfaction. If you want a good orgasm, you can do it yourself. If you want a satisfying sexual relationship, you'll need a lot more. In psychosexual therapy, people are told about the 2-6-2 rule. Out of every ten times you have sex, the chances are that twice it'll be fantastic and mind-blowing, and the earth will move; six times it'll be nice but nothing special; and twice you'll wish you hadn't bothered.

The most basic physical disparities between the male and the female orgasm are the most conspicuous. The typical male orgasm lasts no more than a couple of seconds, while in women, climaxes of up to a minute are known. But the difference in time taken to reach orgasm is even more significant. For perhaps three-quarters of all males, orgasm is reached within two-three minutes after the initiation of the sexual relation.

Men, moreover, are virtually assured orgasmic climaxes, but more often than not, the male mechanism is far too swift and efficient to give a female partner even a slender chance of a "classic", penetration-induced orgasm. As a result of the clitoris being sited in the wrong place to be adequately stimulated by straight reproductive intercourse, orgasm for women is nearly always produced by a masturbatory mechanism. But as if to compensate for this rather unfair-seeming physical mismatch, nature has intriguingly made the female orgasm produced by masturbation far and away the more intense. The fact is very few women get orgasm solely as a result of the penis penetrating the vagina, it's more likely to happen through stimulation (touching/rubbing/kissing) of the clitoris - the highly sensitive bump located at the top of the vaginal lips. Unlike the men, some women are able to do this without the need to rest for a short period of time. Here are some general orgasm indicators in women, describing the build-up and the moment itself: 

Rising feeling of intense pleasure; 

Increase in blood pressure and pulse rate; 

Breathing quickens; 

Increase in vaginal lubrication; 

Clitoris becomes erect and exposed; 

Breasts become enlarged, nipples erect; 

Skin flushes, particularly the face and chest; 

Pelvic muscle spasms, causing vaginal contractions and orgasmic sensations

It is mostly a dream that both partners get orgasm simultaneously during intercourse. Most important is to get to the act with total commitment and involvement of body and mind with no assumptions and misconceptions. The rest will happen, naturally.

Is masturbation harmful?

It is fairly common for young boys and, less frequently, for young girls to masturbate (handle or rub their sex organs). However, excessive masturbation is wrong, because it is a misuse of sexual powers. Long-term involvement may become an emotional problem. Depression, low self-esteem, confusion about sexuality, guilt, shamefulness and sexual problems such as erectile disability are observed among people resorting to excessive and prolonged masturbation.

Masturbation can be defined as self-stimulation to cause sexual sensations. The use of the word masturbation usually suggests that the person is manipulating his or her genitals to the point of intense pleasure or orgasm. While masturbation can involve another person, most of us think of it as a very private act. Masturbation allows a healthy way to express and explore your sexuality and to release sexual tension without all the associated risks of sexual intercourse. Health professionals generally agree that this private touching is a natural, normal mode of self-exploration and sexual expression. Unfortunately, after the excitement of the moment has passed, many people find themselves filled with the guilty and or shame. 

Masturbation is not evil, dirty or harmful - it will not make you go blind, drive you insane, turn you into a pervert, stunt your growth, give you STD, make you sterile or get you pregnant. Both guys and girls masturbate; it is a normal and healthy part of sexual development. Masturbation is a very personal thing and should not be done in public places or around people who are not willing partners. You are normal if you masturbate, normal if you wonder about it but don't do it, and normal if you never give it a second thought and don't do it - it is one of the few things in life that are "normal if you do and normal if you don't". Masturbation may make sexual intercourse more enjoyable because you will already know what it takes to "please you". Masturbation alleviates stress and releases endorphins (the pleasure hormones) into your system making you more relaxed.

Masturbation as an exploration of the body, teens masturbation becomes more sophisticated and sexually motivated. Surveys have shown that 80% of males and 59% of females have masturbated by age 18. Many experts believe that masturbation is more prevalent in the teen years due to a strong fluctuation of hormones; masturbation alleviates the strain of this build up and is a necessary part of development. The only real problems that come with masturbation are psychological and are the result of unhealthy or weary attitudes toward doing it (if you do it but are ashamed) or abnormal practices (for example, public masturbation).

What is the advantage of circumcision?

"Circumcision" or surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis has been widely practised as a religious rite by certain segments of people since ancient times. Many others have adopted the custom of circumcision, primarily for hygienic purposes and for many ailments, including hysteria, sexually transmitted diseases, hypersexuality and diseases result from the buildup of smegma, a substance secreted under the foreskin.

What are the major causes of sexual weakness?

Nervous debility (Lack of blood flow to blood vessels into the penis during erection)

Venereal diseases (Sexually Transmitted Diseases)

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

Diabetic (Nerve damage from longstanding diabetes)

Blood leakage inside the blood vessels of penis

Hormonal disorders (decreased libido can because of low testosterone or androgen)

Cardiovascular disorders affecting the blood supply to the pelvis

Problems with an enlarged prostate gland

Alcoholism and other forms of drug abuse (Chronic use of alcohol, narcotics, marijuana, Excessive use of tobacco and Ghutka [crushed tobacco] betel nut, can damage penile arteries)

Certain prescription medications (Tranquillizers, antidepressants, antihistamines, some psychotherapeutic drugs and medications to treat high blood pressure antihypertensive, stimulants)

Some birth defects

Can excessive sex drive be a problem?

Yes, increased sex drive can be associated with psychotic disorders, such as manic-depressive illness and some personality disorders, as well as wit psychotic illness. This can lead to violently disruptive behavior, including rape.

Having large breast an advantage?

Women's breasts have three levels of significance: they can feed a baby; they can give erotic pleasure; and they play a large part in shaping a woman's self-image.

Many girls in their teens are overly worried about the size of their breast. Many believe that a woman with large breasts has a definite sexual advantage; and a woman with small breasts must be less sexually interested and skilled. The fact is that there is absolutely no evidence to suggest that size of the breast is related to a woman's level of sexual desire, or to her sexual response. In response to sexual stimulation, a woman's breasts may undergo changes. Her nipples typically become erect during sexual excitement. Actually many women experience very little sexual pleasure from having their breasts fondled or caressed, and this is true for women with large and small breasts. Often it is the woman's male partner who derives more pleasure out of fondling her breasts, and she may participate mainly because she knows her lover enjoys it.

No doubt, breast size has a strong impact on a woman's mental well-being as well. After all, it's impossible to ignore the emphasis our culture places on breast size. From puberty to adulthood, a woman faces idealized norms and contemplates her potential to measure up. Biases exist against women with large breasts as well as small breasts. A girl or woman with larger breasts may deal with assumptions about her sexuality. A girl or woman with smaller breasts may feel inadequate. Recognizing that these external and internal pressures exist, we must encourage girls and women to become comfortable with their own bodies and dispel the myths.

The bottom line for all women is that you shouldn't expect more or less from your body because of your breast size. In particular, your ability to breast-feed and your risk of breast cancer, two of the most important health concerns, are unrelated to size.

Why do I feel to urinate before I get an orgasm?

The urethra and the bladder are located where they can receive direct pressure in some intercourse positions. This makes some feel like they have to urinate during sex. In others, the reason could be an infection in the urinary tract.

By swallowing semen can a women get pregnant?

No, a woman cannot get pregnant from having semen in her mouth (cuts or no cuts), nor from swallowing it, smelling it, feeling it, looking at it, or thinking about it. With the exception of egg implantation, pregnancy can occur only when sperm make their way to eggs via the vagina. This is also the case when women are artificially inseminated.

After the penis is withdrawn from the vagina, semen leaks out, is this normal?

Yes, the seminal fluid ejaculated by the man during intercourse will, and has to, come out after the man withdraws penis from the vagina. It is normal.

Do STDs turn into AIDS?

STDs do not turn into AIDS. Those who have untreated STDs are MORE likely to catch HIV, IF THEY indulge in sexual intercourse with someone who has HIV infection, simply having an STD does not lead to AIDS.

He has a rather large penis, I am an ordinarily built small girl... is it possible for us to have enjoyable sex?

Penis may vary according to individual's height & weight and the same holds for vaginas too, which have variation in length and diameter in unexcited state. A woman with a small frame can have a large vagina and a woman of large body frame can very well have quite a small vagina. However the female vagina has an amazing capability to expand to accommodate penis of any size. Remember that it can accommodate the passage of a baby during childbirth, and even the biggest penis cannot be as big as the infant's head. Initial penetration should be slow and in stages after applying lubricating jelly to his penis and your vagina.

Can we engage in sex during menstrual periods?

If the husband is not turned off, there is no problem. Many men and women worry that having sexual intercourse during a woman’s period is unhealthy. Though frowned upon in many cultures and faiths, sexual intercourse during menstruation is entirely normal and completely healthy.

Worries about this act generally stem from societal misconceptions about menstrual blood: most girls are taught from a young age that their menstrual blood is unclean and "dirty," and therefore should be hidden and contained at all times. However, menstrual blood is an entirely natural bodily fluid, and does not in anyway affect a man’s penis or a woman’s reproductive tract. 

As long as you are engaging in safe and protected sexual intercourse, it is entirely alright for you and your partner to have sex during your period. But many people prefer not to. In fact, many women are especially interested in sex during their periods because of hormones. However, it is always a good idea to watch yourself for healthy (as opposed to dark, fowl smelling) menstrual flows and seek prompt medical check-up in case of suspicion.

I noticed very strong vaginal odour from my sex partner. Is it normal?

You should seek medical help. Though the vaginal odor varies from woman to woman, strong & offensive odour is often associated with an infection.


Is homosexuality wrong?

The current opinion is that homosexuality is a variation of normal human sexual preference. The sex scientists no longer consider this as an abnormal or pervert behavior. In some countries homosexuality and gay or lesbian marriage has got legal validity. However, the Indian society has not yet fully come to terms with the scientific opinion.

What about penis enlargement treatment? Is it actually possible?

At the present time, we believe, that there are no satisfactory procedures - medical or surgical - that actually increase the size of the penis on a permanent basis. The best solution is to accept the reality. And as detailed above, size just doesn’t matter, then why worry about enlargement treatment at all?

I had a problem with the foreskin of my penis. It was tight and did not come up during an erection.

Apply a bit of water-based jelly or some other lubricant and try to pull the skin backwards gently till it stretches well enough to come fully backward. Do this on daily basis for several days. If it does not help or gives rise to pain, have it removed through circumcision, a minor surgery.

What is the average size of the human testis? Does variation in size matter in sperm production?

On an average, the adult testis measures 4.5 cm x 2.8 cm. Minor variations in size may not show noticeable changes in spermatogenesis, but on the whole, decreased testis size or volume is often associated with impaired sperm production.

My vagina has got loosened, is there any remedy to make it tighter?

You may consider strengthening your vaginal muscles by practicing what are called Kegel's exercises (named after Kegel, who introduced them). All you have to do is lie down on your back, hold tightly for 3-4 seconds, the muscles you use to stop the urine stream. (Imagine you are passing urine, and you want to stop the stream for a second. What would you do? Hold back the muscles that control urine flow, wouldn't you? Just do that for 2 more extra seconds... then relax!). Do this about 20 times in the morning, after emptying the bladder, and another 20 times in the evening or night before dinner. You can do this even while sitting or standing. About 4-6 weeks of this exercise and you will find remarkable improvement in the tone of your vaginal muscles. You will then be able to hold these muscles tight during intercourse.

It may take diligence to identify your pelvic floor muscles and learn how to contract and relax them. Here are some pointers:

Find the right muscles: To make sure you know how to contract your pelvic floor muscles, try to stop the flow of urine while you're going to the bathroom. If you succeed, you've got the basic move. Or try another technique: Insert a finger inside your vagina and try to squeeze the surrounding muscles. You should be able to feel your vagina tighten and your pelvic floor move upward. Then relax your muscles and feel your pelvic floor move down to the starting position. As your muscles become stronger — and you become more experienced with the exercises — this movement will be more pronounced.

A cautionary note: Don't make a habit of starting and stopping your urine stream. Doing Kegel exercises with a full bladder or while emptying your bladder can actually weaken the muscles. It can also lead to incomplete emptying of the bladder, which increases your risk of a urinary tract infection.

If you're having trouble finding the right muscles, don't be embarrassed to ask your doctor for help. He or she can provide important feedback so that you learn to isolate and exercise the correct muscles.

Perfect your technique: Once you've identified your pelvic floor muscles, empty your bladder and get into a sitting or standing position. Then firmly tense your pelvic floor muscles. Try it at frequent intervals for five seconds at a time, four or five times in a row. Work up to keeping the muscles contracted for 10 seconds at a time, relaxing for 10 seconds between contractions.

Be careful not to flex the muscles in your abdomen, thighs or buttocks. To get the maximum benefit, focus on tightening only your pelvic floor muscles. Also, try not to hold your breath. Just relax, breathe freely and focus on tightening the muscles around your vagina and rectum.

Repeat three times a day: Perform a set of 10 Kegel exercises at least three times a day. The exercises will get easier the more often you do them. You might make a practice of fitting in a set every time you do a routine task, such as checking e-mail or commuting to work.

You can also vary your technique. Try doing sets of mini-Kegels. Count quickly to 10 or 20, contracting and relaxing your pelvic floor muscles each time you say a number. Or slow it down, gradually contracting and releasing your pelvic floor muscles one time. As you contract, visualize an elevator traveling up four floors. At each floor, contract your muscles a little more until you reach maximum contraction at the fourth floor. Hold the contraction and then slowly release the tension as you visualize the elevator traveling back down. Repeat 10 times.

Some doctors recommend exercising the pelvic floor muscles with weighted vaginal cones about the size of tampons. By contracting your pelvic floor muscles, you hold the weight in place in your vagina. Start with a light weight and gradually work up to a heavier one.

What are the safe sex days before or after the periods, (excluding the 3 days) without using condoms or taking pills or any other alternatives to avoid PREGNANCY?

NO DAY IS ABSOLUTELY SAFE in unprotected sex. A few days in the cycle are relatively safer, but this changes from person to person and from time to time for the same person. As a general rule, the safe period method is somewhat dependable only for those women who menstruate regularly without missing periods. For a woman whose cycle is 28 days, the safer days are the last 8 days of the cycle (20th day onwards). Somewhat less safe days are Day 1 to day 7. Between 7th and 20th are the most unsafe days.

In order for the woman to get pregnant, one of her eggs needs to combine with a man's sperm (fertilisation). The woman's body releases an egg (ovulation) roughly 14 days before her period. She is most likely to conceive during this time. The ovulation period is the time when the woman's ovary releases an egg (ova) for fertilization.

A woman's menstruation cycle is generally 28 days long, but could last anywhere between 25 to 35 days (or even longer). The cycle begins from the first day of menstruation and ends on the first day of the next menstruation. Roughly 14 days before the beginning of the next period, the woman's body releases an egg. This egg generally lasts for 24-48 hours, known as the ovulating phase. If the egg is not fertilized (combined with a sperm) during this period, it is discarded by the body during menstruation. For a woman with a 28-day menstruation cycle, the ovulation period is approximately the 14th day of the cycle. For a woman with a 32-day cycle, ovulation will take place on the 18th day of the cycle.

The most fertile period of a woman with a regular 28 day cycle is between day 10 (rarely 9) and day 18. The human ovum is susceptible to fertilization for 24 hours after ovulation. The sperm ejaculated into the vagina can live upto 5 days but can fertilize an ovum only for about 3 days. In a 28-day cycle the unsafe period is from day 7 to 21.the chance of conception is minimum (10/100 women a year) when coitus is avoided during these days. The first day of menses can be marked on a calendar for 6 months. Then by subtracting 18 days from the shortest cycle & 11 days from the longest cycle we get the first and last day of the fertile period, thus coitus should be avoided during this period to avoid conception.

No, ovulation does not necessarily take place in every menstrual cycle. Even if your periods are regular, it is possible that you will not ovulate in a particular month. Painful periods generally imply that you had ovulated during that cycle. However, ovulation could take place even if the periods are not painful.

However, ovulation and menstrual cycle being different from person to person there is no 100% safe periods as such and it is advisable to take precaution to avoid conception.

Is it wrong sucking the penis?

Not wrong…! But may be unsafe with those who are having infections in urinary tract.

I have curvature of the penis?

Some amount of curvature, at the middle of the shaft of penis - usually to the left - is common; it occurs in almost 40-50% of men. In some men the penis takes a slight angle upon erection. It points upward, downward, straight, or to left or right. All these are but normal variations in the erect penises and usually do not interfere with penetration and sexual performance. Please tell us your age, marital status, degree of curvature of the penis, point of curvature (middle of the shaft, tip), direction (downward? sideways?), if there is pain on erection, if any, or during intercourse etc. We can advise you correctly on your doubts. Or visit a nearby Sex Counselor to get a physical examination and reassurance.

What is the best possible method for birth control?

Condom : male condom is a sheath of latex or animal tissue placed on erect penis; female condom is a plastic sac with a ring on each end inserted into the vagina; both may be used with a spermicidal; typical use effectiveness: 84% (male) 79% (female)

1. Effective against STD transmission 2. Available over the counter o Can be used with other methods to further protect against STD

2. Available over the counter can be used with other methods to further protect against STD

Birth Control Pill : prescription drug containing female hormones; one pill taken daily prevents ovaries from releasing eggs and/or thickens cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching egg; typical use effectiveness: 94%

!. More regular periods

2. No action required prior to sexual intercourse permits sexual spontaneity

3. Some protection against ovarian and endometrial cancer, no cancerous breast tumours, ovarian cysts.

Tuba Legation : surgical procedure to permanently block woman's Fallopian tubes to prevent eggs from reaching sperm; typical use effectiveness: 99%

1. Permanent protection from pregnancy

2. No action required prior to sexual intercourse permits sexual spontaneity

Vasectomy : surgical procedure to permanently block the male's vas deferens to prevent sperm from reaching eggs; typical use effectiveness: 99%

1. Permanent protection from pregnancy

2. No action required prior to sexual intercourse permits sexual spontaneity

Natural Family Planning : techniques, including checking body temperature or cervical mucus daily or recording menstrual cycles on a calendar, to determine the days when body is most fertile; typical use effectiveness: 81%

1. No medical or hormonal side effects

2. Inexpensive

3. Accepted by most religions

Can you give a brief on female genitals?

The female external sexual organs are grouped together and called the vulva. The vulvar area includes structures that are visible externally and extends from the pubic bone to the anus. On the front of the body, the mons pubis is a rounded fat-filled cushion that lies over the interior surface of the right and left pubic bones. During puberty the skin of the mons pubis becomes covered with pubic hair that usually grows in a triangular area called the escutcheon. In men, the escutcheon is not as well delineated and hair from the pubic area often extends up to the umbilicus (navel or belly button) as well as downward over the inner aspects of thighs. Genetic and racial differences among women produce a variety of hair patterns, many of which are more like the male in appearance.

The labia majora, the homologue to the male scrotum, are two longitudinal folds of S thighs. The size of the labia majora is determined by fat content and responds to various changes as women age. The outer surface of the labia is covered with pubic hair while the inner portion is not. After childbirth, the labia majora become less prominent.

The labia minora are two small, reddish folds of tissue that are smaller and thinner than the labia majora and are free of pubic hair. At the front end, they come together to form the prepuce (foreskin) of the clitoris; and at the rear end, below the clitoris, they form its supporting membrane or frenulum. The labia minora are endowed with many nerve endings and are extremely sensitive to touch. They comprise one of the few areas of the body that has a large number of sebaceous glands without hair follicles.

The labia majora extend to the midline and fuse to form a small ridge of tissue called the hymen is composed of both elastic and collagen connective tissue and varies widely in structure and shape in adult females. Small tags or nodules of firm fibrous tissue may be left as remnants from the breaking of the hymenal ring. The hymen is so varied in appearance that it is impossible to determine by physical exam whether or not the woman is still a virgin. Occasionally, the hymen is thick and very persistent and must be surgically removed before intercourse can take place.

The clitoris is a central erectile structure at the front of the opening to the vagina that averages three/quarters inch to an inch in length. It consists of two lateral crura or legs that are attached to the pubic symphysis, a body often called the corpus, and a glans or head. The glans has one of the largest concentrations of nerve endings in the female body. The body of the clitoris has two corpus cavernosa in its walls, which are lined by smooth muscle fibers. These structures allow the clitoris to become erect upon stimulation.

The G-Spot is an area on the front wall of your vagina that when stimulated, can cause women to orgasm and sometimes ejaculate. For some women, stimulating the G-Spot creates a more intense orgasm than clitorial stimulation. Not all women can have an orgasm through G-Spot stimulation.

Mons Veneris

Major lip (one of a pair)

Minor lip (one of a pair)

Glans of the clitoris

Opening of urethra

Urinary bladder

Vaginal opening




Fallopian tube (one of a pair)

Ovary (one of a pair)

Explain more about sperm, semen and ovum

Besides sperm, semen is made up of 65 percent of fluid from the seminal vesicles, 30 to 35 percent from the prostate and 5 percent from the vasa. Semen contains citric acid, free amino acids, fructose, enzymes, phosphorylcholine, prostaglandin, potassium, and zinc. The amount of semen produced varies from a few drops to about 6 ml. One amount of ejaculate may contain between 40 million to 600 million sperm depending on the volume and the length of time stored before ejaculating. Yet, the quantity of sperm produced will only cover the head of a pin.

Semen is a white or grey liquid, emitted from the urethra (tube in the penis) on ejaculation. Usually, each millilitre of semen contains millions of spermatozoa (sperm), but the majority of the volume consists of secretions of the glands in the male reproductive organs. The purpose of semen is purely for reproduction, as a vehicle to carry the spermatozoa into the female reproductive tract. Although ejaculation of semen accompanies orgasm and sexual pleasure, erection and orgasm are controlled by separate mechanisms and semen emission is not essential for enjoyable sex in most people.

The term sperm is derived from the Greek word spermos (Latin: sperma) meaning "seed" and refers to the male reproductive cells. Sperm cells are the smaller gametes involved in fertilisation in anisogamy and oogamy. In these types of sexual reproduction, there is a marked difference in the size of the gametes with the smaller one being termed the "male" or sperm cell. A uniflagellar sperm cell that is motile is also referred to as spermatozoon, whereas a non-motile sperm cell is referred to as spermatium. Sperm cells cannot divide and have a limited lifespan, but they can fuse with egg cells during fertilisation to form a totipotent zygote with the potential to develop into a new organism.

An ovum is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. The word is derived from Latin, meaning egg or egg cell. Both animals and embryophytes have ova (plural). The ova are developed from the primitive germ cells which are imbedded in the substance of the ovaries. Each primitive germ cell gives rise, by repeated divisions, to a number of smaller cells termed oögonia, from which the ova or primary oöcytes are developed. Human ova are extremely minute, measuring about 0.2 mm. in diameter, and are enclosed within the egg follicles of the ovaries; as a rule, each follicle contains a single ovum, but sometimes two or more are present. By the enlargement and subsequent rupture of a follicle at the surface of the ovary, an ovum is liberated and conveyed by the uterine tube to the cavity of the uterus. Unless it is fertilised it undergoes no further development and is discharged from the uterus, but if fertilisation takes place it is retained within the uterus and is developed into a new being.

How can I preserve my fertility?

Adopt a healthy lifestyle, with a balanced diet and regular exercise. Avoid smoking or use recreational drugs. Don't drink alcohol, or keep alcohol consumption within recommended limits. Try to avoid exposure to industrial and occupational hazards by following safety procedures and wearing protective clothing when provided. Your employer has a legal responsibility to provide information on occupational health risks and to ensure employees have a safe and healthy working environment. A good diet is essential for health in general and for fertility.

Avoid exposure to sexually transmitted diseases by adopting safer sexual practices, such as using condoms and reducing your number of partners.

Some evidence suggests that stress reduces semen quality, probably due to hormonal changes in the body that result from stress. The causes of stress in modern life are legion and concerns over fertility or failure to conceive are very important causes of stress. If you are concerned that you have a fertility problem, it is sensible to seek advice from a doctor.

The chance of conception in a healthy, young couple is about 20 percent per month, so a delay of three to six months before conceiving is not unusual. It is reasonable to request an initial assessment after six months of regular unprotected intercourse without conception.

Can those with heart diseases enjoy sex?

Thousands of heart patients and stroke survivors have learned that having heart disease, a stroke or surgery doesn't mean a satisfying sex life must end. After the first phase of recovery is over, patients find that the same forms of lovemaking that they enjoyed before are still rewarding. Many myths surround sex after heart disease and stroke. The most common one is that resuming sex often causes a heart attack, stroke or sudden death. This just isn't true. There's no reason why heart patients or stroke survivors can't resume usual sexual activity as soon as they feel ready for it. Talk with your doctor if you have any concerns.

Fears about performance and general depression can greatly reduce sexual interest and capacity. After recovery, heart patients and stroke survivors may feel depressed. This depression is normal, and in 85 percent of the cases, it goes away within three months. It does tend to magnify any prior sexual problems between partners. You and your mate or partner can prepare for sex in several ways. First, you can maintain and improve your physical conditions and personal hygiene. Second, you can be more tolerant of your emotions. Temporary mood swings are common.

Following are some general guidelines for couples resuming sex. Choose a time when you're rested, relaxed and free from the stress brought on by the day's activities. Wait for one to three hours after eating a full meal to allow time for digestion. Select a familiar, peaceful setting that's free from interruptions. If prescribed by your doctor, take medicine before sexual relations.

Some guidelines for stroke survivors resuming sex. Be aware that your feelings about your body may have changed since your stroke. Try using pillows to help support your affected side during lovemaking.

Penis fracture: Is this possible? How can you fracture your penis if it doesn't have any bones?

A penis fracture can occur when there is trauma to the erect penis, resulting in rupture of the lining of the cylinder (corpus cavernosum) in the penis that becomes engorged with blood during an erection. This very painful injury is often accompanied by an audible cracking sound, followed immediately by dark bruising of the penis due to blood escaping the cylinder. In about 10 percent of penis fractures, the urethra is damaged and blood may be visible at the urinary opening of the penis.

Prompt surgical repair of a fractured penis is usually successful. If untreated, the injury may result in deformity — with significant curving of the penis during subsequent erections.

Blood in semen... What causes blood in semen?

Blood in ejaculated semen (azoospermia) is relatively uncommon and rarely serious. In most cases, the cause can't be determined, and the problem goes away without treatment. However, known causes of blood in semen include inflammation, infection and blockage or injury to the prostate gland or seminal vesicles. Also, following a prostate biopsy, it is common to have blood-tinged semen for four or five subsequent ejaculations.

Erectile dysfunction and heart disease: Is there a connection? Is it true that men with erectile dysfunction are at increased risk of heart disease?

Evidence suggests that men with erectile dysfunction have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke. This is likely due to the systemic nature of atherosclerosis (a disease affecting the arterial blood vessel) which can affect the blood vessels supplying the penis as well as blood vessels elsewhere in the body.

Sperm: How long do they live after ejaculation? How long do sperm live after ejaculation?

Sperm ejaculated into a woman's vagina remain alive in the mucus of the cervix and are able to fertilise an egg for three to five days. Sperm ejaculated outside the body usually live only a few hours.

What conditions can Unani medicine treat?

Almost any condition, acute or chronic, can be treated using Unani medicine but physicians at Roy Medical Hall, mainly concentrating on sex-related disorders.

If you have a doubt or uncertainty about whether Unani medicine can help you and need more information or clarifications please do not hesitate to contact us

Who can take herbal medicine?

Almost anyone can take Unani medicine.

What happens in a consultation?

Your Unani practitioner (our Physician) will make a full assessment of you and your condition, and then recommend a suitable Unani medicine for you. The Unani medicine may be in tablets, capsule form, liquid or majoon and may comprise one or many herbs. Each prescription is individual and made up entirely to suit your needs.

Is it safe taking a different system of medicine with Unani?

Taking Unani Medicine with other systems of medicine simultaneously may be indicated in some cases, which is safe, and may prove to be more effective. There is no risk of a clash of the medicines, as many patients may have such apprehension.

Is it true Unani has effective treatment for pigment disorder Vitiligo?

Unani system of medicine has a speciality in the treatment of pigment disorder LEUCODERMA or VITILIGO.

The Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine has developed a successful line of treatment for this disorder. Six drugs/ formulations have been developed for its treatments.

Drug code: UNIM-001+UNIM-003 Effective in Vitiligo

(UNIM-001 oral medicine)

Dose: Two tablets (250 mg) twice daily.

Duration of treatment: Minimum 30 to 45 days depending upon the chronicity of the diseases, an extension of the patch and the part affected.

UNIM-003: Powder for local application

Mode of application: For application on the affected parts

Efficacy: Effective in arresting the spread of the diseases as well as re-pigmenting the de-pigmented patches in 85% of the cases.

Safety evaluation: Completely safe even its use during pregnancy. Free from any toxic effects.

Drug code: UNIM-004+UNIM-005

Effective in: Vitiligo

(UNIM-004 oral medicine)

Dose: Two tablets (250 mg) twice daily.

Duration of treatment: Minimum 3 to 6 months depending upon the chronicity of the diseases, an extension of the patch and the part affected.

UNIM-005: Powder for local application

Mode of application: For application on the affected parts

Efficacy: Effective in arresting the spread of the diseases as well as re-pigmenting de-pigmented patches in 89% of the cases.

Safety evaluation: Completely safe even its use during pregnancy. Free from any toxic effects.

FREE treatment available at:

Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine,
Opp: E.S.I, Hospital A.G. Colony Road, Erragadda,
Hyderabad-500 838.

Regional Research Institute, of Unani Medicine,
D-11/1, Abul Fazal Enclave, Jamia Nagar, Okhla,
New Delhi - 110 025.

Regional Research Institute in Unani Medicine,
79-B, 1st Floor, Chittaranjan Avenue,
Calcutta-700 073

The Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Hyderabad, which is a specialized centre for the treatment of Vitiligo based on Unani line of treatment has emerged to be the most celebrated research institution of Unani Medicine in the country.

It has earned worldwide fame for the successful treatment of Bars (Vitiligo).

Ever since its inception, the institute has registered about 48,000 patients of this disease and attracts about 2,500 new Bars cases every year from various parts of the country and the world, and has scientifically established the efficacy of six combinations of Unani drugs in this disorder. Studies conducted on these diseases at the CRIUM, Hyderabad has since been published by the Council in the form of a monograph entitled "Clinical Studies on Bars (Vitiligo)". This work has been widely appreciated by the scientific community both in the country and abroad.

The Institute has a 50-bedded hospital with essential laboratory facilities for Pathology, Biochemistry and Radiology etc. The treatment is provided in OPD as well as IPD free of charge.

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